Zululand , historic region and home of the Zulus, c.10,000 sq mi (25,900 sq km), NE KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Zululand is bordered by the Indian Ocean on the east, by Mozambique on the north, and by Swaziland on the west. The terrain rises from a low coastal plain to the foothills of the Drakensberg range. There are several game and forest reserves.
Although some corn is grown, the Zulu economy depends primarily on cattle raising. Zululand's two major commercial crops, sugarcane and cotton, are generally cultivated on coastal plantations. Sugar milling and some paper making are virtually the region's only industries. There is also considerable exploitation of wattle and eucalyptus.
The Zulus, who belong to the southern branch of the Nguni-speaking peoples, constitute the majority of the population, and Zulu is the chief language. Many Zulus still live as members of a traditional extended family in a fenced compound (kraal), headed by the oldest man. Members of the family occupy beehive-shaped huts in the enclosure of the kraal, within which the cattle are kept penned. The prolonged absence of a majority of the men, many of whom are employed in the distant cities and mines of South Africa has, however, weakened Zulu society. The name Zulu originally denoted a people that, migrating southward, reached the area around the Tugela River in the late 17th cen
The Zulus became historically important in the early 19th cent. under Shaka , whose conquests reduced many neighboring people to vassalage and caused others to flee. His successors soon encountered the Boer settlers migrating north into Natal (see KwaZulu-Natal ) as part of the Great Trek . The Zulu chief Dingane ambushed and killed about 500 Boers in 1838. In revenge the forces of Andries Pretorius killed about 3,000 Zulus in the Battle of Blood River. Subsequent Boer intervention in Zulu domestic affairs led in 1840 to the overthrow of Dingane and the crowning of Mpande, who became a vassal of the Boer republic of Natal.
The British, who succeeded the Boers as rulers of Natal in 1843, encountered the hostility of Mpande's son, Cetshwayo . After he ignored an ultimatum that he submit to British rule, Great Britain launched an attack on Zululand in 1878 and, although suffering several grave defeats, finally triumphed in July, 1879. Faced with continuing Zulu rebellions, the British annexed Zululand in 1887; it became part of Natal in 1897.
The Bantustan (black "homeland" ) designated by the government of South Africa, in accordance with the Bantu Self-Government Act of 1959, to be the Zulu homeland was named KwaZulu [land of the Zulus]; it was made up of isolated tracts of land, forming only a part of historical Zululand. It was, therefore, neither geographically unified nor territorially homogeneous. The area north of the Tugela River, where the largest tracts of Zulu territory lie, formed the hub of KwaZulu. Ulundi was the capital. Slightly more than half of South Africa's Zulu population lived in KwaZulu, which also had Xhosa, Sotho, and Swazi minorities.
The Inkatha movement, an indigenous association whose membership consists primarily of Zulu migrant workers, has played an important and controversial role in the political life of South Africa since 1975. Inkatha and its leader, Mangosuthu Gatsha Buthelezi , were accused of collaborating with apartheid forces in the South African government, and long-standing hostilities between Inkatha and the African National Congress (ANC) led to bloodshed in the black townships of Natal. In Apr., 1994, just before national elections, Buthelezi agreed to abandon a boycott and have his Inkatha Freedom party participate. In return, the KwaZulu region was given autonomy under Zulu King Goodwill Zwelithini, with Buthelezi as his prime minister, while at the same time being incorporated into the new KwaZulu-Natal province. Attempting to stay above politics, the king subsequently distanced himself from Inkatha. Violence and political feuding between Zulu supporters of Buthelezi and Zulu partisans of the ANC continued in the mid-1990s but largely subsided in the last years of the decade.
It's cool, elevated position on a hilltop overlooking the hot and humid coastal plain gives Eshowe its serenity but the Dlinza Forest around which the town wraps itself, gives Eshowe its spirit.
British military graves near KwaMondi.
No other town in South Africa has blended so organically into its environment as Eshowe.
The core of the 250-hectare coastal scarp Dlinza Forest is a declared nature reserve but tracts of the beautiful, high forest as well as patches of wild flowers and grassland are dispersed throughout the leafy avenues of the town.
Blessed with this abundant natural diversity, Eshowe residents boast that that there is a tree in flower every day of the year in their town.
This lush environment and refreshing climate has always attracted human habitation and no less than four Zulu kings have at some stage lived here, though Eshowe probably owes its modern beginnings to the Norwegian missionaries who established a station here in the mid-19th century.
During the Anglo Zulu War of 1879 British soldiers used the mission as a fort and were besieged by the Zulu army for 10 weeks.
During the Zulu Civil War a few years later, Eshowe became the British military headquarters and a large peacekeeping force of
3 000 British troops was encamped in tents at Fort Curtis for about 16 years.
There was a rush of trading ventures to cater to the needs of such a large garrison and during this period it was made the capital of the colony of Zululand.
No evidence of Fort Curtis remains - it occupied a large area in the vicinity of the present Eshowe Sports Club - but the town remains a busy commercial hub long after the departure of the last British soldier.
Today it continues to charm visitors and Eshowe was recently voted amongst the top 10 towns of South Africa by a popular travel magazine.